This is unfortunate because the reader is interested in the paper because of its findings, and not because of its background. For this, the abstract must have some general qualities.
The abstract of a paper is the only part of the paper that is published in conference proceedings. What is already known about the subject, related to the paper in question What is not known about the subject and hence what the study intended to examine or what the paper seeks to present In most cases, the background can be framed in just 2—3 sentences, with each sentence describing a different aspect of the information referred to above; sometimes, even a single sentence may suffice.
Table 3 lists important questions to which the methods section how to write a scientific paper ppt provide brief answers. Only a reader with a very specific interest in the subject of the paper, and a need to understand it thoroughly, will read the entire paper.
It is therefore the duty of the author to ensure that the abstract is properly representative of the entire paper. The abstract is the only part of the paper that a potential referee sees when he is invited by an editor to review a manuscript.
Examples of acceptably written abstracts are presented in Table 6 ; one of these has been modified from an actual publication. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Thus, for the vast majority of readers, the paper does not exist beyond its abstract. Note that, in the interest of brevity, unnecessary content is avoided.
The primary target of this paper is the young researcher; however, authors with all levels of experience may find useful ideas in the paper. There are some situations, perhaps, where this may be justified.
The usual sections defined in a structured abstract are the Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions; other headings with similar meanings may be used eg, Introduction in place of Background or Findings in place of Results. This is because readers who peruse an abstract do so to learn about the findings of the study.
The abstract is the only part of the paper that readers see when they search through electronic databases such as PubMed. In the rest of this paper, issues related to the contents of each section will be examined in turn.
Abstract Abstracts of scientific papers are sometimes poorly written, often lack important information, and occasionally convey a biased picture. Earlier articles offered suggestions on how to write a good case report,[ 1 ] and how to read, write, or review a paper on randomized controlled trials.
Table 2 Open in a separate window Methods The methods section is usually the second-longest section in the abstract. Table 4 presents examples of the contents of accept-ably written methods sections, modified from actual publications.
This paper provides detailed suggestions, with examples, for writing the background, methods, results, and conclusions sections of a good abstract. If a title interests them, they glance through the abstract of that paper.
For the referees, and the few readers who wish to read beyond the abstract, the abstract sets the tone for the rest of the paper. Although the primary target of this paper is the young researcher, it is likely that authors with all levels of experience will find at least a few ideas that may be useful in their future efforts.
These are listed in Table 1. The results section should therefore be the longest part of the abstract and should contain as much detail about the findings as the journal word count permits. Background This section should be the shortest part of the abstract and should very briefly outline the following information: Some authors publish papers the abstracts of which contain a lengthy background section.
Table 3 Open in a separate window Carelessly written methods sections lack information about important issues such as sample size, numbers of patients in different groups, doses of medications, and duration of the study.
Finally, most readers will acknowledge, with a chuckle, that when they leaf through the hard copy of a journal, they look at only the titles of the contained papers.
The purpose of the background, as the word itself indicates, is to provide the reader with a background to the study, and hence to smoothly lead into a description of the methods employed in the investigation.
It should contain enough information to enable the reader to understand what was done, and how.Oct 08, · How to Make a Scientific or Technical Presentation Scientific and technical presentations are a vital component to presenting scientific data to a variety of audiences.
Whether you are a professional in a medical field of study, an engineer, or a government official, you will have to make an oral presentation at some point in your 80%(25).
A scientific paper should: •Present the facts in an unbiased manner •Be clear: concise and complete •Use facts to make statements •Be complete enough that other scientists can Microsoft PowerPoint - Senior Seminar - Lecture 3 - Scientific mint-body.com Author: n A scientific paper is a written and published report describing original research results Writing a Research Paper No single best way Varies from paper to paper Wait till data analyzed Background reading not too extensive make notes; make notes of notes write down sentences or parts of them not during “writing time” Whom Writing For?
After writing the paper comes the time of reading your paper a few times in order to get everything mint-body.com this section you will learn how to remove a lot of mistakes you might have been writing.
In the end, you will have to build your own checklist corresponding to your own problems you want to avoid. HOW TO WRITE AN EFFECTIVE RESEARCH PAPER • Getting ready with data • First draft • Structure of a scientific paper • Selecting a journal • Submission • Revision and galley proof Disclaimer: The suggestions and remarks in this presentation are based on personal research experience.
Research practices and approaches vary. Abstracts of scientific papers are sometimes poorly written, often lack important information, and occasionally convey a biased picture. This paper provides detailed suggestions, with examples, for writing the background, methods, results, and conclusions sections of a good abstract.Download